USING LINKING WORDS

avril 26, 2010 à 4:24 | Publié dans advanced english, business english, english (all) | Laisser un commentaire

*Image created at wordle.net

A strong command of English is essential in order to deliver an accurate, coherent, clear and persuasive argument, summary or case. This lesson examines the use of conjunctions and other linking words within texts, and how they act as building blocks and bridges between clauses and ideas.

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Read through the text below explaining the concept of CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. Pay particular attention to the use of linking words and how they make the summary more coherent. On second reading, try to find at least ten of these types of word. Answers are provided at the end of the lesson.

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby businesses would monitor and ensure their adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms. Consequently, businesses would embrace responsibility for the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere. Furthermore, CSR-focused businesses would proactively promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere, regardless of legality. Essentially, CSR is the deliberate inclusion of public interest in corporate decision-making.

In the increasingly conscience-focused marketplaces of the 21st century, the demand for more ethical business processes and actions is increasing. Simultaneously, pressure is being applied on industry to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and laws.

The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism. Proponents argue that there is a strong business case for CSR, in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by operating with a perspective broader and longer than their own immediate, short-term profits. Critics argue that CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; others yet argue that it is an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations. Corporate social responsibility has been redefined throughout the years. However, it essentially serves as part of an organization’s mission as well as a guide to what the company stands for and what values it will uphold to its consumers.

* Text adapted from Wikipedia article on “Corporate Social Responsibility” – wikipedia.org

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window-dressing: apparence, “éthique de façade”

watchdog: organisme de surveillance, gardien

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LINKING WORDS

We use linking words to link together parts of a sentence or several separate sentences. Often their purpose is to join ideas together, or to create a flow of information which is smooth and logical.

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(i.) There are different types of link words. Words which are used to connect ideas within one sentence are called “conjunctions”. Some conjunctions are “coordinate” (they join two equal clauses) and some are “subordinate” (they join a main clause to a less important clause)

e.g.

The wife works and the husband stays at home = coordinate

You can go to bed or you can stay up late = coordinate

I am going to be late because of you = subordinate

Apples are expensive if you buy them individually = subordinate

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(ii.) Some words are used to connect ideas between sentences. There are called “sentence connectors”.

e.g.

We’re going to go for a drink. As soon as we’re finished we will call you.

The metro stops running at 12.30am. Because of that, we have to leave by midnight.

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(iii.) Linking words can be either one word, multiple words, or two words which are used in combination but in different parts of the sentence (“double conjunctions”)

e.g.

The sun is shining and the weather is sweet (it makes you want to move your dancing feet) = one word/simple conjunction

In order that the delivery arrives on time, we have sent it via courier service = three word conjunction

If you want something done, then do it yourself = double conjunction.

There is a high level of press freedom in Europe. In contrast, China is notorious for its strict censorship of journalists = two word sentence connector

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(iv.) Linking words can be categorized according to their use. Sometimes they are for comparison, sometimes to add more information, sometimes to refer to time, sometimes place, sometimes purpose. A comprehensive list of linking words, separated into different functions, can be found easily through a search engine query.

Using linking words with skill takes practice, and a process of memorizing and familiarizing oneself with the constructions and how they are used.

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Now look through the following set of questions. Match the linking words and the clauses in order to complete the sentences.

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(i.)

as long as

meanwhile

neither… nor

whereby

consequently

given that

on the one hand… on the other hand

likewise

in spite of

whether… or

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(ii.)

huge corporations and multinationals are taking an even bigger market share

there has been so much talk of trying to save money

yet the government is going ahead with the new legislation

police pursue petty criminals in order to improve crime rates

tax payers are bailing out the banking sector

have little strength to resist evil

the gloomy predictions of various company financial consultants

everything’ll be fine

the issues related to CSR are complex

we are going to have to wait a little longer

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  1. …………………………………………………………………… we are noticing sustained growth and an increase in profit.
  2. …………………………………………………………………… you don’t mention the wedding; it’s causing them a lot of stress.
  3. I find it disgusting that managers are receiving bonuses of up to $5 million, and ……………………………………………………………………
  4. ……………….. the general public ……………….. the experts support tougher laws on prostitution ……………………………………………………………………
  5. the economic downturn has hit small businesses hard. ……………………………………………………. ………………………
  6. …………………………………………………………………… I am amazed that you are suggesting spending $750,000 on advertising.
  7. ……………….. you like it ……………… not …………………………………………………………………
  8. The current initiatives encourage a system ………………………………………………………………… and don’t ever go after the criminal masterminds who are at the root of the problem.
  9. ………………………………………………………………… ……………….. it makes sense to consider ethics within the business sphere ……………….. it can cause a company to lose its competitive edge through increased costs.
  10. “Some have little power to do good, and ………………………………………………………………..” (Samuel Johnson)

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Adamique offre des cours d’anglais et de français à Montréal. Visitez notre site web pour plus d’informations !

Adamique offers French and English classes in Montreal. Visit our website for more information!

Adamique在蒙特利尔提供法语和英语培训课程。更多信息请访问我们的网站.

www.adamique.com

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Answers:

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby businesses would monitor and ensure their adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms. Consequently, businesses would embrace responsibility for the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere. Furthermore, CSR-focused businesses would proactively promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere, regardless of legality. Essentially, CSR is the deliberate inclusion of public interest in corporate decision-making.

In the increasingly conscience-focused marketplaces of the 21st century, the demand for more ethical business processes and actions is increasing. Simultaneously, pressure is being applied on industry to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and laws.

The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism. Proponents argue that there is a strong business case for CSR, in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by operating with a perspective broader and longer than their own immediate, short-term profits. Critics argue that CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; others yet argue that it is an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations. Corporate social responsibility has been redefined throughout the years. However, it essentially serves as part of an organization’s mission as well as a guide to what the company stands for and what values it will uphold to its consumers.

  1. In spite of the gloomy predictions of various company financial consultants, we are noticing sustained growth and an increase in profit.
  2. Everything’ll be fine as long as you don’t mention the wedding; it’s causing them a lot of stress.
  3. I find it disgusting that managers are receiving bonuses of up to $5 million, and meanwhile, tax payers are bailing out the banking sector.
  4. Neither the general public nor the experts support tougher laws on prostitution, yet the government is going ahead with the new legislation.
  5. The economic downturn has hit small businesses hard. Consequently, huge corporations and multinationals are taking an even bigger market share.
  6. Given that there has been so much talk of trying to save money, I am amazed that you are suggesting spending $750,000 on advertising.
  7. Whether you like it or not, we are going to have to wait a little longer.
  8. The current initiatives encourage a system whereby police pursue petty criminals in order to improve crime rates, and don’t ever go after the criminal masterminds who are at the root of the problem.
  9. The issues related to CSR are complex. On the one hand, it makes sense to consider ethics within the business sphere, on the other hand, it can cause a company to lose its competitive edge through increased costs.
  10. “Some have little power to do good, and have likewise little strength to resist evil.” (Samuel Johnson)

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